A Music Section was created as part of the Folklore Archive, which in 1927 absorbed the National Music Collection. The National Music Collection was founded in 1914 (Law 432), “to preserve and collect the songs, dances and musical instruments of the Greek people.”
In 1939 the Archive acquired recording equipment. Due to the stormy political events of the time and despite the then Director’s, Georgios Megas’ efforts to employ this equipment “for the recording of folk music”, it was not until 1950 that it finally began to operate, when the Folklore Archive acquired a music Research Staff Member, with the result that the Centre possesses recordings dating from 1952. Today the Archive contains about 30,000 reels and cassettes, of mainly musical material. As part of a series of special projects, the entire recorded material is being gradually copied in digital form in the specially equipped studio of the Menelaos Pallantios Centre.
In 2005, as a result of a donation by Eleni Dalas, the Centre acquired a collection of musical recordings in eighty cylinders and the "Panarmonium" once belonging to Constantinos Psachos.